Growth hormone was discovered in early 19th century. Many scientists have tried to prove its importance, for normal growth of our body.
Human growth hormone is also known as somatotropic hormone or somatotrpoin.
It is basically a protein, containing 191 amino acids. The molecular weight of one chain is about 22,005.
Mechanism of regulation of secretion:
The secretion of this hormone is stimulated by hypothalamus. Hypothalamus secretes growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH). This hormone stimulates pituitary gland to secrete growth hormone.
Growth hormone is secreted by anterior part of pituitary gland. This hormone directly shows its effects on different organs.
Functions of growth hormone:
Growth hormone is basically related with the normal growth of our body, according to our age.
- It causes growth of almost every tissue present on our body.
- Increases the size of cells.
- Increase the number of cells in a tissue by increasing the rate of mitosis.
- Helps in development and differentiation of particular type of cells such as bone cells and muscle cells.
Growth hormone is released in high quantities during the period of growth, and then the secretions are decreased as we grow old. The secretions fall to about 25% when we reach the age of adolescence.
Human growth hormone is secreted in a pulsatile manner in our body, increasing and decreasing.
There are many factors which can affect the secretion:
Conditions which increase secretions:
Human growth hormone is also secreted in high quantities during first two hours of deep sleep.
Conditions which inhibits secretion of growth hormone:
- Lack of sleep
- High blood sugar
- High levels of free fatty acids in blood
Other than its effect in causing growth, human growth hormone has specific metabolic effects on our body:
- Increased rate of protein synthesis in most cells of our body.
- Increased mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue
- Increased fatty acids in blood.
- Increased use of fatty acids for energy production.
- Decrease rate of glucose utilization throughout the body.
Thus, growth hormone utilizes body fat, enhances protein deposition and conserves carbohydrates.
Growth hormone is essential for normal metabolism as well as physical and mental growth of our body. Its deficiency or excess can cause severe abnormalities in our body such as:
Human growth hormone is an essential hormone for our body. It helps in normal physical and mental growth according to our growing age.
It is secreted by anterior part of pituitary gland, under the care of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) secreted by hypothalamus.
This hormone is responsible for growth of cells, which includes increase in their number and size. It also maintains metabolism by utilizing the stored fat in our body in adipose tissue and conserving carbohydrates and proteins.
Deficiency of this hormone can result in serious illness and hence proper treatment should be taken if any problem id=s diagnosed related to this hormone.