Human growth hormone (HGH) is the major hormone, which is responsible for the growth and development of the body. It is a naturally produced substance in the body.
Human growth hormone, which is also known as somatotropin is produced and secreted by the pituitary gland. This is situated in between the brain and medulla oblongata. Its main function is to mature the hard and soft cells and the tissue system of the body. It also affects the metabolic activities and regulates the blood sugar level. The level of production of HGH is high in puberty and at young age. Slowly, it decreases with aging.
Less mass of muscles, wrinkles, absorption of fat and less bone density are the early signs of deficiency of growth hormone.
Insulin Growth Factor –
Human growth hormones work in two different ways. It can affect the body directly and indirectly. In the direct method, it creates a desired effect by binding itself to the receptor cells of the organ. These cells then work on the target organs.
In the indirect method, it causes the liver to secrete another specialised hormone, Insulin Growth Factor (IGF), which has an impact on the target organs.
Mechanism of Work –
The growth and maturation of cells, bone density and muscle mass occurs mainly in the indirect process. It plays a major role in the metabolism of the body. It accelerates the rate of protein formation and its synthesis. It helps in the breakdown of fat cells and fatty acids. It increases the rate of glucose release in the blood stream. When the GH hormone breaks down fat, it increases the rate of energy. However, when there is increased glucose in the body, it is not immediately used for stamina.
GH maintains the balance of blood sugar and the glucose level. Sufficient amount of amino acids also helps in the production of GH. Therefore, more body mass can be built from the derivation of amino acids.
Diseases can be caused by the over production or under production of Human Growth Hormone. A disrupted balance may cause low production of GH or can interfere with the cell activation. Under production of growth hormone causes retardation and dwarfism. It refers to miniature structure of the human body.
Over production of growth hormone causes gigantism. It makes an individual excessively and abnormally tall. Sometimes, it may also cause tumours due to increased mitosis of cells.
However, if overproduction is caused in the puberty and adulthood, it causes acromegaly, which results in tumor in the pituitary gland, swelling in the body parts, large size of limbs and cardiac problems.
Usage of HGH –
Clinically it is used to treat children, who cannot reach the height of 5 feet. Average humans are 5 feet in height and it is normal under medical observation.
These days it is also used for the treatment of aging. It prevents reduction of lean mass, thereby facilitating usage of fat cells. The treatment usually involves injections. The medical professionals inject HGH hormone to get the desired results.
Sprays and medical pills do not contain GH in it, as it cannot be absorbed. However, the chemical present in it stimulates the production of HGH.